I had dinner with some old friends and new Friends of FOD Jennifer and Charlie when I was down in CA last week. They put me in contact with a new Friend of FOD Judy Ann, who has agreed to lend her professional help to make the comments and the subscription pieces work.
A bit shorter blog today, as I have to get to Bart’s house, a great friend of FOD, for the Super Bowl! Thanks for hosting Bart.
While the battle for Bataan continued throughout the night of February 4 1942, the USS Trout (SS-202) rendezvoused with PT-34 off Corregidor and was escorted through its minefields to its South Dock. Trout delivered 20 tons of ammunition to the besieged American forces on Corregidor. Trout unloaded her ammunition cargo, refueled, loaded two torpedoes, and requested additional ballast. Since neither sandbags nor sacks of concrete were available, she was given 20 tons of gold bars and silver pesos to be evacuated from the Philippines. The specie came from twelve Philippine banks emptied of their assets, absent the paper money, all of which had been burned to prevent it from falling into Japanese hands. She also loaded securities, mail, and United States Department of State dispatches before submerging shortly before daybreak to wait at the bottom in Manila Bay until the return of darkness. Trout is credited with sinking 12 enemy ships for 37,144 tons according to JANAC records. During her first ten war patrols she made 32 torpedo attacks, firing 85 torpedoes, including 34 hits, 5 confirmed premature detonations, 5 confirmed duds, and 25 suspected duds. She was also involved in six battle surface actions and was attacked with depth charges eight times. She was reported overdue on 17 April 1944 and presumed lost on her eleventh war patrol.
Who is allowed to immigrate to the US is not just a topic for today, but has been the subject of friendly and unfriendly discourse since the beginning of our nation. The first rules regarding immigration date back to the Naturalization Act of 1790. This law limited naturalization to immigrants who were free white persons of good character. It thus excluded American Indians, indentured servants, slaves, free blacks, and later Asians. Through a series of laws and through varied political climates attitudes have changed and changed again. On February 5, 1917, the Immigration Act of 1917 was passed by a two-thirds majority, over President Woodrow Wilson’s veto the previous week. It was the first bill aimed at restricting, as opposed to regulating, immigrants and marked a turn toward nativism. The law imposed literacy tests on immigrants, created new categories of inadmissible persons and barred immigration from the Asia-Pacific Zone. It’s interesting to note by looking at the enclosed Asiatic Barred Zone, that it included the majority of countries covered by President Trump’s travel ban, now on hold. It governed immigration policy until amended by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 also known as the McCarran–Walter Act. Native Americans were finally granted citizenship by the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, whether or not they belonged to a federally recognized tribe. Almost immediately, the provisions of the law were challenged by Southwestern businesses. US entry into World War I, a few months after the law’s passage, prompted a waiver of the Act’s provisions on Mexican agricultural workers. It was soon extended to include Mexicans working in the mining and railroad industries and the exemptions continued through 1921. The Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed in 1943. The Luce-Celler Act of 1946 ended discrimination against Asian Indians and Filipinos, who were accorded the right to naturalization, and allowed a quota of 100 immigrants per year. The Immigration Act of 1917 was later altered formally by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, known as the McCarran-Walter Act. It extended the privilege of naturalization to Japanese, Koreans, and other Asians. The McCarran-Walter Act revised all previous laws and regulations regarding immigration, naturalization, and nationality, and collected into one comprehensive statute. Legislation barring homosexuals as immigrants remained part of the immigration code until passage of the Immigration Act of 1990. And the debate goes on. Then there is the sonnet that American poet Emma Lazarus wrote in 1883 to raise money for the construction of the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. In 1903, the poem was engraved on a bronze plaque and mounted inside the pedestal’s lower level.
Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
MOTHER OF EXILES. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
“Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she
With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!
You should see some improvements to FOD. You should be able to add a comment at the bottom and upon my approval, it will appear. There are a couple under the Recent Comments box. And you should be able to sign up to subscribe, but I’m still working to figure out how to push it to all those who have signed up. Thanks for your patience. There’s a lot to do during retirement!
On January 29, 1944 the last battleship to enter US Navy service was christened – the USS Missouri (BB-63). Her keel was laid on January 6, 1941 at the New York Navy Yard. Missouri was the third Iowa-class “fast battleship” designs planned in 1938 by the Preliminary Design Branch at the Bureau of Construction and Repair. After her christening and launching she was rapidly completed and commissioned on June 11, 1944 and rushed to the Pacific Theater of World War II,
arriving in West Caroline Islands on January 13, 1945. She put to sea on 27 January, to serve in the screen of the Lexington carrier task group of Mitscher’s TF 58, and on 16 February the task force’s aircraft carriers launched the first naval air strikes against Japan since the famed Doolittle raid, which had been launched from the carrier Hornet in April 1942. Missouri then steamed with the carriers to Iwo Jima where her main guns provided direct and continuous support to the invasion landings begun on 19 February. After TF 58 returned to Ulithi on 5 March, Missouri was assigned to the Yorktown carrier task group. On 14 March, Missouri departed Ulithi in the screen of the fast carriers and steamed to the Japanese mainland. During strikes against targets along the coast of the Inland Sea of Japan beginning on 18 March, Missouri shot down four Japanese aircraft. She provided shore bombardment for the battle of Okinawa and shelled the Japanese home islands.
This photo (right) shows her being hit by a kamikaze on her starboard side April 11, 1945. The Japanese pilot’s body was recovered and Captain Callaghan decided that the young Japanese pilot had done his job to the best of his ability, and with honor, so he should be given a military funeral. Missouri’s crew hand stitched a Japanese flag for the occasion and the following day he was buried at sea with military honors. Less than a month later, the USS Missouri serves as the location for the surrender ceremony on September 2, 1945 during which Japan formally and unconditionally surrendered to the Allies ending the Second World War (photos below). During the surrender ceremony, the deck of Missouri was decorated with a 31-star American flag that had been taken ashore by Commodore Matthew Perry in 1853 after his squadron of “Black Ships” sailed into Tokyo Bay to force the opening of Japan’s ports to foreign trade. This flag was actually displayed with the reverse side showing, i.e., stars in the upper right corner: the historic flag was so fragile that the conservator at the Naval Academy Museum had sewn a protective linen backing to one side to help secure the fabric from deteriorating, leaving its “wrong side” visible. The flag was displayed in a wood-framed case secured to the bulkhead overlooking the surrender ceremony. Another U.S. flag was raised and flown during the occasion, a flag that some sources have indicated was in fact that flag which had flown over the U.S. Capitol on 7 December 1941. This is not true; it was a flag taken from the ship’s stock, according to Missouri’s Commanding Officer, Captain Stuart “Sunshine” Murray, and it was “…just a plain ordinary GI-issue flag.” For the surrender ceremony, General MacArthur ensured the assembled officers and sailors were the tallest available. Missouri fought in the Korean War from 1950 to 1953 and this photo (right) shows her firing her 16 inch guns on enemy positions during the Korean War.
Notice the effect on the seawater under the guns.
She was decommissioned in 1955 into the United States Navy reserve fleets (the “Mothball Fleet”), but reactivated and modernized in 1984 as part of the 600-ship Navy plan, and provided fire support during Operation Desert Storm in January/February 1991. The photo (left) shows her “unrepping” with the USS Kitty Hawk (no airwing is
aboard) from the USNS Kawishiwi. In 1998, “Mighty Mo” was donated to the USS Missouri Memorial Association and became a museum ship at Pearl Harbor. From here you can see the USS Arizona memorial. The next time you’re in Hawaii, I recommend you visit her and see the location of this plaque where the Japanese surrender documents were signed.
January 29th commemorated two national days: Thomas Paine Day and Freethinkers Day. Thomas Paine was a courageous freethinker, whose life and works inspired political and social advancements throughout the world, but particularly during the time of the American Revolution. FOD should have noted that on January 10, 1776, he published Common Sense, a remarkable and powerful republican pamphlet which had an immediate success. Later, you’ll recall from an earlier FOD, (19 December 2016), General George Washington read from Paine’s’ later published pamphlet The American Crisisto his troops at Valley Forge.
Between March 1791 and February 1792 he published numerous editions of his Rights of Man, in which he defended the French Revolution. The words of Thomas Paine inspired many to strive for political, economic and social advancement. He was among the first to call for an end to slavery and the establishment of human rights around the world. In the 1990s, the Truthseeker magazine began celebrating Freethinkers Day on Thomas Paine’s birthday in order to educate the public on the importance of Thomas Paine in the history of freedom. Also in the 1990s, the Thomas Paine Foundation began celebrating the birthday of Thomas Paine on January 29th, a Thomas Paine Day proclamation on June 8 and other Paine theme events during the year. And the question is – where would he stand on the issues of today?
And in preparation for unabashed snack food gormandizing this coming Super Bowl Weekend, 29 January is National Corn Chip Day. Well it’s not officially recognized by Congress, but then again, who cares? Corn chips – another method of ingesting: whole corn, vegetable oil (corn, soybean, and/or sunflower oil), salt, cheddar cheese (milk, cheese cultures, salt, enzymes), maltodextrin, wheat flour, whey, monosodium glutamate, buttermilk solids, romano cheese whey protein concentrate, onion powder, partially hydrogenated soybean and cottonseed oil, corn flour, disodium phosphate, lactose, natural and artificial flavor, dextrose, tomato powder, spices, lactic acid, artificial color (including Yellow 6, Yellow 5, Red 40), citric acid, sugar, garlic powder, red and green bell pepper powder, sodium caseinate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, nonfat milk solids, whey protein isolate, and corn syrup solids (whatever they are). But they taste good! You had better thoroughly enjoy your guacamole as the price of avocados may be going up quickly if President Trump goes ahead with a 20% tariff on goods imported from Mexico, to pay for a wall, we know will never work. The decision to build a wall has so far kept out one Mexican – Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto, leader of America’s third largest trading partner, a close ally and our neighbor in North America. All because of a misguided campaign promise? Holy guacamole! Besides produce, automakers and appliance manufacturers have established supply chain strategies utilizing parts manufactured in Mexico, in concert with the 1994 NAFTA agreement. A tariff could see car sticker prices rise 10%, and your next refrigerator could go up 20%. Holy guacamole!
In the last FOD, I mentioned there were some baseball stories out there. On January 29, 1936, the U.S. Baseball Hall of Fame elected its first members in Cooperstown, New York: (left to right):
Ty CobbBabe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson, Walter Johnson. The Hall of Fame actually had its beginnings in 1935, when plans were made to build a museum devoted to baseball and its 100-year history. A private organization based in Cooperstown, N.Y., called the Clark Foundation thought that establishing the Baseball Hall of Fame in their city would help to reinvigorate the area’s Depression-ravaged economy by attracting tourists. To help sell the idea, the foundation advanced the idea that U.S. Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown. The story proved to be phony, but baseball officials, eager to capitalize on the marketing and publicity potential of a museum to honor the game’s greats, gave their support to the project anyway. In preparation for the dedication of the Hall of Fame in 1939–thought by many to be the centennial of baseball–the Baseball Writers’ Association of America chose the five greatest superstars of the game as the first class to be inducted: Ty Cobb was the most productive hitter in history; Babe Ruth was both an ace pitcher and the greatest home-run hitter to play the game; Honus Wagner was a versatile star shortstop and batting champion; Christy Matthewson had more wins than any pitcher in National League history; and Walter Johnson was considered one of the most powerful pitchers to ever have taken the mound. Collectively they are known as the “Five Immortals.”
Today, with approximately 350,000 visitors per year, the Hall of Fame continues to be the hub of all things baseball. It has elected 278 individuals, in all, including 225 players, 17 managers, 8 umpires and 28 executives and pioneers. There is also a library specifically for baseball history and information. Add the Baseball Hall of Fame to your bucket list of places to visit. It’s worth the trip.
Here in Seattle where it also was, “Once upon a midnight dreary,” Edgar Allan Poe’s most famous poem, “The Raven,” was published on January 29, 1845 in the New York Evening Mirror. Perhaps he was reflecting on the time he spent as a cadet at West Point (that is one of the most dreary places in the Winter) where he was expelled for gambling.
And 28 January was the anniversary of the birth of Colonel Francis Stanley (Gabby) Gabreski, USAF. He was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Air Corps Reserve on 14 March 1941 and was as a fighter pilot with the 45th Pursuit Squadron of the 15th Pursuit Group at Wheeler Army Airfield, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941. 2nd Lt. Gabreski trained on both the Curtiss P-36 Hawk and the newer Curtiss P-40 Warhawk. He closely followed reports on the Battle of Britain and the role played in it by Polish RAF squadrons, especially by the legendary No. 303 Polish Fighter Squadron. He became concerned that the US did not have many experienced fighter pilots. This gave him an idea: since Polish squadrons had proved to be capable within the RAF and since he himself was of Polish origin and spoke Polish, he offered to serve as a liaison officer to the Polish squadrons to learn from their experience. The idea was approved. Serving with another Polish squadron, the No. 315 (Deblin) Squadron at RAF Northolt, he flew 20 missions but only saw combat once. With lessons learned however, Gabreski became part of the 56th Fighter Group, flying the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, assigned to the 61st Fighter Squadron, and quickly became a flight leader in January 1943. By March 27, he had 18 victory credits and had six multiple-kill missions to rank third in the “ace race” that had developed within VIII Fighter Command. He downed only one more aircraft in the next two months, during which time the two pilots ahead of him (Majors Robert S. Johnson and Walker M. Mahurin, also of the 56th FG) minimally increased their number of kills. On May 22, Gabreski shot down three Fw 190s over a Luftwaffe airfield in northwest Germany. He tied Johnson as the leading ace in the European Theater of Operations on June 27 (passing Eddie Rickenbacker‘s record from World War I in the process), and on July 5, 1944, became America’s leading ace in the ETO, with his score of 28 destroyed matching the total at the time of confirmed victories of the Pacific Theater’s top American ace, Richard Bong. This total was never surpassed by any U.S. pilot fighting the Luftwaffe. On July 20, 1944, he decided to fly just one more flight before returning home after his 300 combat hour limit. On a strafing run at Bassenheim, Germany, he dropped his nose just a bit too much and the propeller blades of his Thunderbolt clipped the runway. The difference between low and too low. The damage caused his engine to vibrate violently and he was forced to crash land. Gabreski ran into nearby woods and eluded capture for five days. He used that SERE School Training. Eventually he was captured and after being interrogated by ObergefreiterHanns Scharff, he was sent to Stalag Luft I. He was liberated when Soviet forces seized the camp in April 1945. He was recalled to active duty with the new USAF after WW II and he participated in aerial combat again during the Korean War. In June 1951, he and a group of selected pilots of the 56th FIW accompanied the delivery of North American F-86 Sabres of the 62d FIS to Korea aboard the escort carrierUSS Cape Esperance. The planes and pilots joined the 4th Fighter-Interceptor Group at K-14 (Kimpo) Air Base, where most engaged in combat. On July 8, 1951, flying his fifth mission in an F-86, Gabreski shot down a MiG 15, followed by MiG kills on September 2 and October 2.
In total he added 6 ½ MIG kills to his 28 victories in WW II and become the all-time American Fighter Ace. He was known as a great and very aggressive fighter pilot, but who lacked flight discipline, particularly toward his wingmen. Additionally he created an international incident by turning off his IFF and engaged MiGs over China including over two Chinese bases. Hey, it’s war folks – oh I forgot, it was a limited conflict police action. Colonel Gabreski retired from the Air Force 1 November 1967 after 27 years of service and 37.5 enemy aircraft destroyed. At the time of his retirement, he had flown more combat missions than any other U.S. Air Force fighter pilot and is the only pilot ace in two wars.
And at that moment every other ship in Navy’s worldwide became obsolete.
The unique design of the ship, distinguished by its revolving turret which was designed by American inventor Theodore Timby, was quickly duplicated and established the monitor type of warship. In the photo right note the dents in the turret. Monitor foundered while under tow in December 1862 during a storm off Cape Hatteras. Monitor‘s wreck was discovered in 1973 and has been partially salvaged (below).
Her guns, gun turret, engine and other relics are on display at the Mariners’ Museum in Newport News, Virginia. I’m putting this on my list of places to go and things to see on my next east coast trip.
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